Over the past two years, Neutrino Factory Physics Study 3 has developed an exciting Neutrino Factory Physics program. Working at ASTEC has put Britain at the forefront of neutrinos factory research.
The Neutrino Factory is one of the proposed designs for a future intensive neutrino beam facility. It is a complex particle accelerator developed for the study of particle physics to generate intense, focused neutrino rays. The NeutRino factory would be an important tool in a long-term neutrino physics program.
The Neutrino Factory is a proposed particle accelerator complex designed to measure the details and properties of neutrino interaction with elementary particles moving in a straight line through normal matter thousands of kilometres away. It would generate a focused neutrino beam from a location on Earth and beam it into a racetrack-shaped underground muon storage ring in two beams emitted in different directions, where they would reappear at other points.
The design of the low-energy neutrino factory (4 GeV) describes the expected performance. The starting point for the International Design Study of Neutrino Factories (IDS-NF) was the result of an international framework study on future neutrino factories and superjet facilities on the ISS.
The Neutrino Factory includes improvements resulting from the extensive work of the Accelerator Working Group. While other subsystems have undergone gradual evolution, there is no evidence that the design of the neutrino factory has reached a certain degree of maturity.
The International Design Study of the Neutrino Factory (IDS-NF) was commissioned to produce a reference design report (RDR) for the Neutrino Factory over a period of 2012-13.
This article examines the motives for the design, research and development of future neutrino factories and muon accelerators. There has been significant progress in the development of concepts and technologies needed to produce and capture accelerated O (10-21) muons per year during the last decade. This has paved the way for the procurement of new types of neutrinos for neutron factories and for a new type of high-energy lepton or antilepton accelerator, the muon accelerator.
Muons are considered heavier than electrons, live at T = 0-2 ms and can be accelerated to high energies by the decay of electrons into muon neutrinos and antineutrinos of the type electrons. The muons, in turn, produce decays into pions, which are produced by hitting a target beam of accelerated protons with corresponding acceleration.
Conventional neutrino beams are produced by the decay of charged pions over a long channel. If p and p are selected, the resulting beam consists of n m and p m, where n m is the decay. In order to study neutrinos vibrations, it is desirable to use n e-rays to obtain examples that exploit these decays.
Measurements of neutrinoscillations in T2K and other experiments suggest that neutrinos have a mass, but further measurements are needed to investigate the physical properties of these particles. An ideal way to do this would be to use a neutrino factory to generate intense neutron beams which could then be used to make precise measurements of parameters of neutrino vibrations and CP violations in leptons. These measurements would give a more complete picture of the CP violation and how it generates the observed matter-anti-matter asymmetry in the universe.
However, this proposal is hampered by the lack of sufficient intensity to follow physics. The intensity requirements for cross-sectional measurements are too high and there is no corresponding requirement for vibration measurements as hoped.
Neutrino sources based on muon storage rings have found great interest in high-energy physics. The strength is the ability to provide intense collided neutrino rays. The technology does an excellent job in solving this problem, but the price excludes the short-term realization of the 1997 Neutrinos Factory proposal.
In such facilities, intense proton beams hit the target pions which decay into muons and after a long decay channel the muons are cooled, accelerated and injected into a storage ring, where they decay. The straight section of the storage ring is represented by the green dot (arrow) in the figure above, which must point to the underground laboratory where the neutrino detector is located.